Fermentation

Making Yogurt: Experiments 1-4

I’ve written before on the health benefits of probiotics in fermented foods like my Down and Dirty Sauerkraut. Daisy Luther offers her trials and tribulations on her way to success in her DiY yogurt process.

by Daisy Luther

Yogurt making gear

I was absolutely determined to make yogurt.  Real, yummy delicious yogurt, the nice thick kind that can stand on its own in a dish, supporting a big spoon full of fruit.

Yogurt has so many good things going for it!  I eat it almost daily and contribute my resistance to stomach viruses and my greatly improved acid-reflux to the habit.  You can read more about the benefits and some tasty ways to use it in my “Ode to Yogurt”.

Attempts #1 and #2

Attempts 1 and 2 were made simultaneously.  The only difference between the two was that #1 was made from pasteurized milk from the dairy and #2 was made from reconstituted powdered milk.

Live yogurt for starter

I used the “thermos” method, found in detail HERE.

Basically, the thermos method is as follows.

  1. Heat 1 cup of milk to 165-185 degrees F (use a candy thermometer – or, wait until you are starting to see some bubbles rising but the milk is not yet boiling).
  2. Remove the milk from the heat and allow it to drop to 105-110 degrees F.
  3. Gently stir in the starter (1 tablespoon of yogurt with live cultures).  You want it to be well-combined but don’t use anything crazy like an immersion blender.  Just a whisk will do.
  4. Immediately place the mixture into a thermos that has been warmed with hot water and put the lid on.
  5. Keep the thermos cozily wrapped in towels overnight (8-24 hours).

You should get up to delicious, rich, thick yogurt.

I, however, did NOT get up to delicious, rich, thick yogurt.  I got up to runny, drink-it-through-a-straw yogurt.  I was seriously bummed.

Regular milk, thermos method

Powdered milk, thermos method

I noticed, however, that the powdered milk yogurt was thicker than the refrigerated milk yogurt.  That got my wheels turning a little.

Attempts #3 and #4

In the face of my early morning disappointment, I decided to try a few different things with the next batches.

I searched up “Why is my thermos yogurt runny?” and found this awesome site, Not Quite Nigella, had some interesting suggestions.

My next two batches were made from a cup and a half of milk from the fridge with 1/3 of powdered milk stirred into it. I was hoping that if the milk was thicker to start with, so too would be my yogurt.

I made another attempt at the thermos method, described above, with half of the mixture.

With the other half, I tried the blog’s “oven method.”

While my milk mixture was heating on the stove top, I turned the oven on to 300 degrees F.

I washed a pint Mason jar and filled it with scalding hot water to keep it warm.

When the milk had been inoculated with the culture, I poured the half that didn’t go into the thermos into the empty, warm jar and placed it on a pan, popped it in the oven, and turned off the heat.  I left it in the warm oven for 5 hours.

Alas, it resulted in runny yogurt.

Oven method, powdered milk mixed with regular milk

I had, at this point, reached my yogurt frustration threshold.  I spoke rather impolitely to the yogurt in the thermos, wrapped snugly in its towel.  I left the thermos on the stove while I baked a batch of cookies.  I turned on the oven a couple of times to keep things warm in the kitchen.  I strongly suspect my other failures are because my house is so chilly, a fact that is really only bothersome when making yogurt or waiting for bread to rise..

I left the thermos of yogurt for 11 hours.  I opened it…and ……SUCCESS!!!!! Happy dance in the kitchen!!!!

Thermos method, powdered milk mixed into regular milk

 

So, the keys to the successful batch of yogurt were…

  • The thermos method
  • Adding 1/3 cup of powdered milk to each 1-1/2 cup of regular milk
  • Warming up the kitchen a few times throughout the day.
Tomorrow I am planning to make a full batch of yogurt. I will let it sit for a solid 12 hours, and  I might try putting the thermos on a heating pad and turning it on intermittently throughout the day. I really want to keep it low-tech because yogurt making is a skill I’d like to be able to accomplish without the grid.
Author bio: Daisy Luther is a freelance writer and editor.  Her website, The Organic Prepper, offers information on healthy prepping, including premium nutritional choices, general wellness and non-tech solutions. You can follow Daisy on Facebook and Twitter, and you can email her at daisy@theorganicprepper.ca
Categories: Fermentation, Frugal Preps, Homesteading, Natural Health, Self-reliance | Tags: , , , , , | 1 Comment

Add Sour Cherry Spirits to Your Food Preservation Arsenal

Source: Rural Spin http://bit.ly/PdWiMZ

Add Sour Cherry Spirits to Your Food Preservation Arsenal

Sour cherries, sugar, and your alcohol of choice are all that’s needed to preserve this seasonal fruit. The final product can be used in cocktails, recipes or as gifts for the holidays.

When I bought my house a year ago, I scored a sour cherry tree in the front yard. It has never been pruned, is really too tall to harvest effectively, and leans over the roof of the house a fair amount. The birds love it, and the squirrels love it more. The aphids love it so much that I purchase lady bugs once a year to take care of the problem (it works great). Last year the birds and squirrels beat me to the ripe fruit. Not this year. Oh, no.

I harvested a pound of fruit off the tree this afternoon, which isn’t bad considering I’m not even 5′ tall and am terrified of heights. The ladder helped, but with the awkward hang over the roof and sheer height of the never-before-pruned tree, a pound was what I could manage. But what does one do with a pound of fruit? There really wasn’t enough for a batch of jam or sour cherry pie filling. But, it was the perfect quantity with which to make some tasty infused spirits.

INGREDIENTS

For 2 quarts of spirits

1 pound of sour cherries, cleaned and pitted
4 tablespoons of sugar (or more to taste)
1 bottle (750 ml) spirits. I used bourbon but vodka or brandy would also work great!
A container with a lid large enough to hold it all

Pitting the cherries isn’t necessary, but it makes it much easier to make use of the fruit after it’s done its job infusing the liquor.

Pitting the cherries is optional, but at the very least they must all be pricked to allow the juice to infuse into the liquor. I like to pit the cherries myself–in a few months I can reuse the fruit to make ice cream or to include with other fruit in desserts, a BBQ sauce, or some other topping over a cooked meat or fish. Doing the work of pitting now saves me serious hassle later.

I used two quart-sized mason jars as my infusing containers, but you can use whatever you’d like. In each of the jars I placed half of the fruit and 2 tablespoons of sugar total, sprinkling it over layers of fruit in teaspoon increments. I then took a bottle of bourbon and poured half of the bottle in each of the jars. Giving each of the jars a good shake, I then placed them in a dark cabinet.

Over the next two months I’ll shake those jars frequently. For the first week I’ll shake them once a day to make sure the sugar is dissolved. After that, I’ll shake the jars once a week, or as often as I remember. In a month or two, the resulting goodness will be a thing to behold!

Layer sugar to taste in with your fruit. I used two tablespoons of sugar in each quart-sized jar.

The uses for the infused bourbon are many:

A tasty addition to cocktails
Drinking it straight in a cordial glass
A liquid addition to batters for cakes, cupcakes, scones, cookies, and more as a flavoring.
An ingredient in sauces for meats such as BBQ sauce, steak sauce, and more
Addition to stews and other thick soups as a flavoring
An ingredient in casseroles or hearty meat dishes
A wonderful holiday or hostess gift when poured into a decorative bottle
An item with which to barter with friends and neighbors
The fruit will have done most of its job infusing the liquor, but it can also be used as an ingredient in ice cream, alcoholic smoothies, various batters, or an ingredient in sweet sauces. But if I know myself (and I do), I’ll mostly be using both the infused alcohol and the fruit as an ingredient in one of my favorite libations, The Manhattan.

Categories: Canning, DIY Preparedness, Fermentation, Homesteading, Lost Skills | Tags: , | Leave a comment

DIY Preparedness Project: Homemade Vinegar

When we need vinegar, we run down to the local super market and pick up a jar. Why would I need to know how to make vinegar anyway? Click here for some of the many uses for vinegar. When the trucks stop rolling and the shelves are emptied, you might find this information valuable.

Source: Pole Shift Survival Information (Great site for tonnes of free DIY Preparedness downloads)

Date: 03 June 2012

How To Make Vinegar

 

Vinegar is easy to make, from a variety of products. And you can make your own

mother of vinegar too, although you don’t actually need it. All you have to do

is add already-made vinegar to apple cider, in a proportion of 1:4. However, to

make mother of vinegar, expose a mixture of one-half vinegar and one-half cider

to a temperature of 80 degrees for a few days. The thin scum that forms on the

surface is mother of vinegar.

 

Vinegar can be made from apples (cider vinegar), grapes (wine vinegar), berries,

other fruits, or even from a 10 percent sugar solution. Most homesteaders who

make vinegar make cider vinegar.

 

The strength of the finished product is in direct proportion to the amount of

sugar in the original solution. For this reason sweet apples usually make

stronger vinegar than tart ones. Not always, though: Some sour apples actually

have a high proportion of sugar which is masked by a high fruit acid content.

 

Use only fresh uncooked cider or grape juice without any preservatives.

Preservatives will prevent it from turning to vinegar. Fill a one gallon glass

jug to the neck.

 

The jug will need an airlock. If you don’t have one for winemaking or don’t care

to purchase one in a winemaking supply store, make a stopper from a dry corn

cob. Insert a piece of grape vine, sumac, or some similar material with a large

pith, lengthwise through a piece of the cob that will fit into the jug’s neck.

Punch or burn out the pith with a hot wire. Fit one end of a piece of rubber or

plastic tubing over the grape or sumac, and put the other end in a jar of water.

 

With this setup, as the juice ferments the carbon dioxide passes through the

tube and bubbles up through the water, but no oxygen can reach the juice. The

first fermentation will take four to six weeks at room temperature. It’s not

necessary to add yeast to start this process, because the wild yeasts which are

always present will do the job. The grey foam that forms on the top is excess

yeast, which is harmless.

 

When the bubbling stops, the sugar has all changed to alcohol: you have made

hard cider! To make vinegar, you need a second fermentation that will convert

the alcohol into acetic acid.

 

Unlike the first fermentation, which occurs through the liquid, the second takes

place only on the surface. It is caused by an entirely different organism. It

requires oxygen, and the larger the surface area in relation to the volume, the

faster the vinegar will be produced. To have more surface area, divide your brew

between two jugs, so the liquid will be below the narrow neck portion.

 

This is when you add the mother.

 

Actually, wild spores floating in the air will act as a starter, so the only

reason for using a mother is to get things going faster. Put a bit on a piece of

dry corn cob and float it on the liquid.

 

Tie cloth over the openings of the jugs to admit oxygen but to keep out dust and

bugs.

 

The time the second fermentation takes depends in part on the spores present.

All strains work best at a temperature of 70-80 degrees. They become dormant at

low temperatures, but high temperatures will kill them. The time required also

depends on the surface-to-volume ratio, but ordinarily, you can figure on

anywhere from three to nine months.

 

This homemade vinegar is much stronger than store-bought. Dilute it with water

to taste before using it. But naturally there are many other ways of doing it.

Here are a few of them.

 

Sweet apple cider

 

Use fully ripened apples, free of decay and bad spots. Wash thoroughly and grind

or crush, then place in cider press or juice press and extract the juice.

 

Place juice in an open kettle (stainless steel or enamel) and boil until volume

is reduced by one-half, skimming often.

 

Pour at once into bottles or stone jugs and cork.

 

Apple cider vinegar

 

Let sweet cider stand in an open jug 4-6 weeks and it will turn to vinegar.

 

Put cores and peelings (left over when apples are used for other purposes) into

a stone crock or wide mouth jar. Cover with cold water and set in a warm place,

adding fresh peelings now and then. Keep the jar covered.

The scum (mother) that forms on top will gradually thicken.

 

When the vinegar tastes strong enough to suit you, strain it through several

thicknesses of cheesecloth.

 

Parings of peaches or pears, grape skins and cherries can be used this way too.

 

Crush cut-up apples in a crock or tub. You can include windfalls and bruised

fruit.

 

Cover with warm water, then cover the top of the tub with several thicknesses of

cheesecloth, tied into place.

 

Keep this in a warm place 4-6 months. When it tastes strong enough, strain,

bottle and cork.

 

You can speed up the process by adding a lump of unbaked bread dough, or two

ounces of brown sugar or molasses, or one package or cake of yeast dissolved in

warm water, to each gallon of liquid.

 

If you make wine, it’s easy (sometimes all too easy!) to make vinegar. When the

wine is made, just let it stand, covered but exposed to the air. Exposed to

summer sun it will take about two weeks; in winter it will take a month or more.

 

White wine vinegar

Mash two pounds of raisins. Add to a gallon of soft water in an uncorked two-

gallon jug. (Old recipes called for rain water, but today. . . Hey, come to

think of it, some rain water is as acid as weak vinegar already! So why are we

going through all this?)

 

Let it stand in a warm place and in about two months it will be white wine

vinegar.

 

If you think it’s fun to be frugal, pour off the vinegar through a cheesecloth

strainer, leaving the raisins and sediment in the jug. Add half a pound of

raisins and a gallon of water and start over again.

 

Raspberry vinegar

Pour three pints of water over 11/2 pints of fresh raspberries. Let stand for 24

hours.

 

Strain off the liquid, discard the berry pulp, clean the jar, put in another 1-

1/2 pints of fresh raspberries, and pour the liquid over them. The next day, do

it again.

 

On day four, strain the clear liquor through several layers of cheesecloth, add

one pound of sugar, stir until dissolved, and let stand uncovered until it turns

to vinegar. This takes about three months.

 

Honey vinegar

Pour one gallon of boiling water over 4-1/2 pounds of honey in a clean crock.

Stir to dissolve.

 

Make a paste of one cake or package of yeast and a small amount of warm water.

Spread this on a slice of toast, and float the toast on the liquid. Cover with

cloth and let stand 16 days.

 

Skim it, strain it, and let it stand another 4-6 weeks until it tastes like

vinegar. Then bottle.

 

Clover vinegar

In a crock pour one quart of molasses and nine quarts of boiling water. Let

stand until lukewarm. Add two quarts of clover blossoms and a cake or package of

yeast. Let stand two weeks, then strain and bottle.

 

Dandelion vinegar

Dissolve two cups of honey in three quarts of hot water. Cool and add one quart

of opened dandelion blossoms and one cake or package of yeast dissolved in hot

water. Cover with cheesecloth, but stir once a day for 10 days. Strain and

bottle.

 

Gourmet vinegars

 

Fancy vinegars in fancy stores bring fancy prices-but naturally, these can be

made on the homestead for a pittance. After you’ve made your vinegar from one of

the recipes above, spice up a small bottle or two of it with one of these ideas:

 

Herb vinegars: Use one cup of herbs for each pint of cider vinegar. Tarragon

vinegar is common in stores, but you can use almost anything from your herb

garden: basil, dill, mint. . . even finely chopped chives or celery leaves.

Place in clear glass jars, cover, and let stand in the sun (like making sun tea)

for two weeks or until flavor is as strong as you want it. Shake the bottles

once or twice a day.

 

Horseradish vinegar: mix 1-1/2 ounces grated horseradish, 1/2 ounce minced

shallot, and 1/2 ounce paprika. Add to one pint of vinegar. Let stand 7-10 days.

Strain and bottle.

Chili vinegar: Finely chop 25 chili peppers and pour over them one pint of

vinegar. Let stand 10-14 days. Strain and bottle.

Garlic vinegar: Put one ounce of finely chopped garlic in a bottle. Pour one

pint of strong vinegar over it. Let stand 10-14 days, shaking frequently. Strain

and bottle.

 

Mint vinegar: Fill a wide mouth jar with clean peppermint. Fill the jar with

vinegar. Cover tightly and let set 2-3 weeks. Pour the vinegar into another

bottle and keep well corked.

Tarragon vinegar: Gather the tarragon just before it blossoms. Strip it from the

larger stalks and bruise it, to release the flavor and aroma. Fill a jar or

bottle with the herb, and cover it with vinegar. Let stand for two months.

Strain and bottle.

 

Meat flavoring vinegar: mix two chopped onions, three chopped red pepper pods,

two tablespoons brown sugar, one tablespoon celery seed, one tablespoon ground

mustard, one teaspoon turmeric, one teaspoon black pepper and one teaspoon salt.

Put into a quart bottle and fill the bottle with cider vinegar. A tablespoon of

this mixed in a stew or gravy will impart a fine flavor and rich color.

 

You can test the strength (acidity) of your homemade vinegar with a wine acid

testing kit, with slight modification.

 

Follow the directions that come with the kit, but of course using your vinegar

instead of wine. Then take the number you come up with and multiply it by 0.8.

That’s the acetic acid strength of the vinegar.

 

Vinegar is a lot more acid than wine, so this uses a testing kit up fast. To

make it last longer, dilute the vinegar at a ratio of one part vinegar to nine

parts water. (Use the measuring devices that come with the testing kit.) Follow

the directions to test the mixture. But then, multiple the result by 8, (not

0.8, as before).

 

Diluting vinegar: To dilute tested homemade vinegar to the four or five percent

vinegar commonly sold in stores, use this formula. If you want 5% vinegar,

measure the strength of what you have made, subtract five, divide the result by

five, then add that fraction of a gallon of water to each gallon of the homemade

vinegar.

 

If you want 4% vinegar, subtract four, divide by four and proceed as above.

Homemade vinegar is not recommended for making pickles because of the uncertain

acid content, it can discolor pickles, and it may look cloudier than store-

bought vinegar.

 

Fermentation should start within a day or two. “Apple cider is very dependable

about fermenting and rarely needs help, as anyone who likes hard cider knows.

Other fruit juices or mixtures may not ferment so easily. If their sugar content

is low, adding sugar or molasses will help. Sometimes the wild yeasts in the air

are not the right kind or strong enough, and adding a little yeast will help.”

 

“If the liquid still refuses to ferment there is no use going on with it.”

 

For canning, a too-weak vinegar can result in spoilage, and even botulism. It

should be five percent (or five grain).

 

Don’t want to spend money on a wine testing kit? That’s okay: there’s a “simple”

way to test acidity without one-“simple,” in the homestead context of course,

meaning it’s a lot of work but all it requires is a few small glasses and jars,

an eyedropper, a little baking soda, a small amount of store-bought vinegar and

a head of red cabbage.

 

Then all you do is titrate your vinegar. Titration is the process of determining

the strength of a solution in terms of the smallest amount of a reagent of known

concentration required to bring about a given effect in reaction with a known

volume of the test solution. . . but don’t worry, you don’t have to know all

about that to do it.

 

Here’s how it works:

 

Titration

 

In one small jar put a solution of baking soda in water. The amount doesn’t

matter, but it should be enough so that a little undissolved soda settles to the

bottom of the jar after you mix it well.

 

In the other jar, put some water left from cooking red cabbage. You want a

strong purple: steam a head of cabbage in just a small amount of water.

 

Next put a few ounces of water in the two glasses. The amount doesn’t matter,

but make certain you have the same amount in both.

 

Use the eyedropper to put enough drops of the purple liquid into the water in

the glasses to give the water a definite color. Again, be careful to put the

same amount in each glass.

 

Rinse the eyedropper in water, then in the five grain store-bought vinegar. Then

put seven drops of the store-bought vinegar into one of the glasses of colored

water which, if you want to be scientific, you can label” standard” or

“control.”

 

Rinse the eyedropper in water again, then in your homemade vinegar, and add

seven drops to the other glass. . . which you can label “test.”

 

Now rinse the eyedropper in water again, then in the baking soda solution. Put

20 drops of the baking soda solution in the “standard” glass. Stir it with a

glass rod or plastic spoon.

 

The water will turn blue. The exact shade depends on the pH of your water. Then

add baking soda solution, one drop at a time-don’t forget to keep track of the

drops-to the test glass. Stir after adding each drop.

 

Do this until the color of the water in the test glass exactly matches the color

of the water in the standard glass.

 

If you add a drop too much, no problem. Just don’t count that one. When the

colors match, the acid content of your homemade vinegar is equal to the number

of drops of baking soda solution you put in the test glass divided by four.

 

Example: if you used 28 drops of solution, the acidity is 28 divided by 4, or

7%.

 

But your recipe calls for, or more likely assumes, 5%. So what now? Water it

down. To make it 5%, subtract 5 from whatever your homemade vinegar tested: in

our example, 7-5=2. Multiply that times the amount of vinegar (in ounces) you’re

going to dilute. Let’s say you have one quart, or 32 ounces. 32 x 2 = 64. Divide

that by 5, and you get 12.8.

 

Add 12.8 ounces of water to dilute 32 ounces of 7% vinegar to 5% acidity.

 

Categories: DIY Preparedness, DIY Preparedness Projects, Fermentation, Free Downloads, Preparedness, Survival Skills | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

Get Your Gut In Shape: Down and Dirty Sauerkraut

by Todd Walker

Get Your Gut In Shape: Down and Dirty Sauerkraut

I always wipe down the shopping cart handle with the handy sanitizing wipes at the grocery store. I’m doing my part in the war on germs being waged in our society. Anti-bacterial soap, anti-bacterial hand sanitizer are only the tip of our modern microorganism warhead. Pasteurized and irradiated food is a relatively new practice. Sterile is good, right?

Fermented foods have sustained humans for thousands of years. When it comes to our gut flora, exposure to bacteria is a good thing. Fermented foods offer the sterile gut a healthy dose of probiotics to help balance our intestinal flora. In a prolonged emergency or TEOTWAWKI event, the skill of fermentation will become very useful – even life saving. When the lights go out, a lot of sub 40 degree food will go to waste.

My sauerkraut will last for years if it had to. Around my house, it doesn’t stand a chance lasting a year. If you hate bland, over-processed store-bought kraut, this stuff will make your taste buds and gut flora smile!

Here’s a healthy alternative for storing the abundance of produce from this years growing season…

Make Your Own Down and Dirty Sauerkraut

A.) Gather the stuff

In this batch, I used one head of white cabbage, one head of red, and about 9 carrots, and some sea salt. You’ll need 2 or 3 wide mouth quart jars with lids. Always use glass to store the kraut to prevent acidic reactions with metal material. I used stainless steel pans to mix the kraut, but only leave it in long enough to mix it. You should really use non-reactive containers in the whole process.

20120505-141024.jpg

 

B.) Shred the stuff

Shred the cabbage or other vegetables you want to add to your kraut. I use a food processor for a down and dirty (quick) method. Some folks like to slice it with a knife to get the desired length on the kraut. If you’re fortunate, you own a cabbage shredder.

C.) Spread the stuff

Spread a layer (about an inch or so) into big container. Sprinkle some sea salt over the layer. How much? I don’t know. I don’t make stuff with exact recipes. You may also like to add a tablespoon of caraway seed. I’ve never tried it, but have heard it’s good. Keep adding layers of cabbage and salt until all the veggies are in the container.

20120505-141108.jpg

Food processor with some red cabbage below.

20120505-141136.jpg

20120505-141207.jpg

D.) Squeeze the stuff

I put all the shredded future kraut into a larger container. You should let the mixture set for about an hour (some recommend 24 hours – but who’s counting) to let the salt begin drawing the moisture out of the veggies. I didn’t wait since I used stainless steel this time. I just started squeezing the juice out. You’ll notice the brine starting to pool at the bottom of your container. Keep squeezing. Some folks call it messaging. I brutalized my kraut for about 20-30 minutes.

20120505-141231.jpg

E.) Pack the stuff

Once there’s a fair amount of brine in the bottom of your container, start filling the quart jars. I try to leave about an inch of head space. As you fill the jar, you’ll want to use a utensil to pack the kraut layer by layer. I used a big wooden spoon. The micro lovelies like it packed tight to better do their thing. Fermentation.

20120505-141253.jpg

F.) Brine the stuff

Once filled, make sure the veggies are covered completely with brine. I’ve seen people use a piece of cabbage to cover the kraut with a weight of some kind. I didn’t use that method. I just made sure I had enough brine to cover. Use any left in the big container to pour over the jar contents. If you don’t have enough brine, use distilled water and a little sea salt mix until dissolved. Then pour enough to cover. Cap the jars with lids and screw the rings down loosely. Check the jars every day or so to make sure the brine is still covering the kraut. You may have to press the kraut down on each check up to ensure it stays submerged.

20120505-141315.jpg

G.) Label the stuff

Label the lid with the date of processing. Put it away and let nature do the rest. I let this batch sit for about a week. I just opened a jar and enjoyed its goodness.

I just found 4 crocks at a yard sale this morning. I paid seven bucks for the whole lot. I plan on using the largest on my next batch of sauerkraut.

Do you make your own sauerkraut? Share your tips and recipe in the comments.

Keep Doing the Stuff,

Todd

P.S. – You can also keep up with the Stuff we’re Doing on TwitterPinterestGoogle +, and our Facebook page… and over on the Doing the Stuff Network on PinterestGoogle +, and Facebook.

Thanks for sharing the stuff!

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Categories: DIY Preparedness Projects, Doing the Stuff, Fermentation, Natural Health, Preparedness, Real Food, Self-reliance | Tags: , , , | 43 Comments

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